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Sources: Belfer Centre, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Council on Foreign Relations Cyber Operations Tracker, Cyber Policy Portal UNIDIR, Dragonfly’s SIAS, World Bank

Cyber actors linked to countries like China, Iran, North Korea and Russia have dominated the threat landscape in recent years, mounting frequent offensive operations against governments, businesses and critical infrastructure globally. And as cyber becomes a more established part of countries' strategic toolkits, the threat is likely to become even more diverse, with middle-power countries likely to try to develop offensive capabilities. This will make cyberspace an even more complicated area for states and businesses alike.

Cyber | A more complicated threat

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Strategic Outlook 2023

The Global Unravelling