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Sources: Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank, Bloomberg, Centre for a New American Security, Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air, Environmental Investigation Agency, Euractiv, Fitch, IMF, International Trade Centre, Johns Hopkins University SAIS China-Africa Research Initiative, National Democratic Institute, OECD, S&P, Pew research Centre, United Nations, UNCTAD, US Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Defence Department, Various national reporting agencies, World Bank
STRATEGIC OUTLOOK 2023
Strategic competition between China and the US exemplifies the dynamics of the global unravelling. It is driving multipolarity in the global order, eroding systems of cooperation and governance that are essential in tackling challenges such as the climate, food insecurity and inflation. The competition is playing out in many spheres, shaping diplomacy and security alliances, the structure and resilience of national economies, and how and who countries engage with in the world.